• Characteristics of Dyslexia:

    Students identified as having dyslexia typically experience primary difficulties in phonological awareness, including phonemic awareness and manipulation, single-word reading, reading fluency, and spelling.  Consequences may include difficulties in reading comprehension and/or written expression.  These difficulties in phonological awareness are unexpected for the student’s age and educational level and are not primarily the result of language difference factors.  Additional, there is often a family history of similar difficulties.


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    If the following behaviors (Risk Factors Associated with Dyslexia) are unexpected for an individual's age, educational level, or cognitive abilities, they may be risk factors associated with dyslexia.  A student with dyslexia usually exhibits several of these behaviors that persist over time and interfere with his/her learning.  

     


     

     

  • Primary reading/spelling characteristics of dyslexia:

    • Difficulty reading words in isolation
    • Difficulty accurately decoding unfamiliar words
    • Difficulty with oral reading (slow, inaccurate, or labored)
    • Difficulty spelling

     

    The reading/spelling characteristics are most often associated with the following:

    • Segmenting, blending, and manipulating sounds in words (phonemic awareness)
    • Learning the names of letters and their associated sounds
    • Holding information about sounds and words in memory (phonological memory)
    • Rapidly recalling the names of familiar objects, colors, or letters of the alphabet (rapid naming)

     

    Consequences of characteristics and consequences of dyslexia:

    • Variable difficulty with aspects of reading comprehension
    • Variable difficulty with aspects of written language
    • Limited vocabulary growth due to reduced reading experiences

     

    (The Dyslexia Handbook, Revised 2014)